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Suit Affecting the Parent Child Relationship in Texas


In the state of Texas, suits affecting the parent-child relationship (SAPCR) are legal actions that involve matters related to the parent-child relationship, including child custody, visitation, and support. The Texas Family Code governs SAPCR proceedings, outlining the legal framework within which these suits are initiated, processed, and resolved. As a knowledgeable lawyer in the world of family law, let’s explore the key aspects of SAPCR in Texas.

1. Types of Suits Affecting the Parent-Child Relationship:

Several types of SAPCR exist, each addressing specific issues related to the parent-child relationship:

a. Original SAPCR: An original SAPCR is initiated when there is no existing court order addressing the parent-child relationship. This suit establishes initial orders regarding custody, visitation, and child support.

b. Modification SAPCR: A modification SAPCR is filed when a party seeks to change or modify an existing court order due to a substantial change in circumstances. Changes could involve custody arrangements, visitation schedules, or child support obligations.

c. Enforcement SAPCR: An enforcement SAPCR is brought forth when one party alleges that the other has violated an existing court order, such as failing to pay child support or interfering with visitation rights. The goal is to enforce compliance with the court’s previous orders.

d. Grandparent SAPCR: In certain circumstances, grandparents may file a SAPCR seeking access or possession of a grandchild. Texas law recognizes the importance of maintaining relationships between grandparents and grandchildren, and specific criteria must be met for such suits.

e. Paternity SAPCR: When paternity needs to be legally established or disputed, a paternity SAPCR is initiated. This suit addresses issues such as custody, visitation, and child support in the context of establishing or challenging paternity.

2. Standing in SAPCR:

For a person to have the legal standing to file a SAPCR in Texas, they must meet certain criteria outlined in the Texas Family Code. Generally, standing is conferred upon:

a. Parents: Biological or adoptive parents automatically have standing to file a SAPCR. Legal guardians may also have standing.

b. Grandparents: Under certain circumstances, grandparents may have standing to file for possession or access to their grandchildren.

c. Other Relatives: In specific situations, other relatives may have standing to file a SAPCR, such as siblings or aunts/uncles.

d. Non-Parents with Court-Ordered Possession: In cases where non-parents have court-ordered possession rights (e.g., through a previous SAPCR), they have standing to enforce those rights.

e. Caretakers: Individuals who have had actual care, control, and possession of a child for at least six months may have standing to file a SAPCR.

Meeting the criteria for standing is a crucial initial step in initiating a SAPCR.

3. Initiating a SAPCR:

The process of initiating a SAPCR involves filing a petition with the appropriate court. The petition outlines the relief sought, including specific requests regarding custody, visitation, and child support. The person filing the petition is the petitioner, and the other party is the respondent.

a. Filing the Petition: The petitioner files the SAPCR petition in the district court of the county where the child resides. The petition must contain essential information, such as the names and addresses of the parties, details about the child, and the specific relief sought.

b. Service of Process: After filing, the respondent must be served with notice of the SAPCR suit. Proper service ensures that the respondent has an opportunity to respond to the allegations and participate in court proceedings.

c. Temporary Orders: In some cases, the court may issue temporary orders to address immediate concerns, such as temporary custody arrangements, visitation schedules, and child support, while the SAPCR is pending.

4. Court Procedures in SAPCR:

SAPCR proceedings involve various court procedures designed to gather information, facilitate negotiation, and ultimately reach resolutions in the best interests of the child.

a. Mediation: Texas law encourages alternative dispute resolution, including mediation, to help parties reach agreements on issues such as custody and visitation. Mediation involves a neutral third party assisting the parties in reaching a mutually acceptable resolution.

b. Discovery: Discovery in SAPCR allows parties to gather information relevant to the case. This can include requests for documents, interrogatories (written questions), and depositions (sworn testimony).

c. Adjudication: If the parties are unable to reach an agreement through mediation, the case proceeds to adjudication. This involves presenting evidence, witnesses, and legal arguments to the court to decide contested issues.

d. Best Interests of the Child: In all SAPCR proceedings, the court’s primary consideration is the best interests of the child. Factors influencing this determination may include the child’s emotional and physical needs, each parent’s ability to provide a stable environment, and any history of domestic violence or substance abuse.

5. Court Orders in SAPCR:

The court issues final orders in SAPCR cases that address custody, visitation, and child support. These orders are legally binding and must be followed by both parties.

a. Custody Orders: Custody orders determine which parent has the right to make important decisions for the child (conservatorship) and the physical possession schedule (possession order). Texas recognizes both joint managing conservatorship, where parents share decision-making rights, and sole managing conservatorship, where one parent has primary decision-making authority.

b. Possession and Access Orders: Possession and access orders outline the schedule for the noncustodial parent’s time with the child. Standard possession orders are often used as a starting point, but custom schedules can be crafted based on the unique needs of the family.

c. Child Support Orders: Child support orders establish the financial obligations of each parent, including the amount of child support to be paid and the schedule of payments. The Texas Child Support Guidelines play a significant role in determining child support amounts.

d. Visitation Rights for Non-Parents: In cases involving grandparents or other non-parents, the court may issue orders granting visitation rights based on the best interests of the child.

6. Modification of SAPCR Orders:

SAPCR orders are not immutable, and circumstances may change, necessitating modifications. Common reasons for seeking modifications include:

a. Substantial Change in Circumstances: If there is a substantial change in the circumstances of the child or the parents, such as a change in income, relocation, or a change in the child’s needs, a modification may be warranted.

b. Agreement of the Parties: If both parents agree to a modification, they can jointly file a request with the court, and the court may approve the agreed-upon changes.

c. Enforcement of Orders: If a party fails to comply with the existing SAPCR orders, the other party may seek enforcement through the court. This can involve actions such as wage garnishment, contempt of court proceedings, or other remedies to ensure compliance.

7. Conclusion:

Navigating suits affecting the parent-child relationship in the state of Texas is a complex legal process that requires a thorough understanding of family law statutes, court procedures, and the best interests of the child. As a knowledgeable lawyer in this field, it’s crucial to recognize the importance of ensuring that children have the opportunity to maintain meaningful relationships with both parents while prioritizing their safety and well-being.

Parents and other parties involved in SAPCR proceedings should seek the guidance of qualified family law attorneys to navigate the intricacies of the legal system. Understanding the types of suits, meeting standing requirements, initiating court proceedings, and complying with court orders are essential components of achieving fair and just outcomes in SAPCR cases.

It’s important to note that family law is dynamic, and legal requirements may change. Individuals seeking information on SAPCR in Texas should consult the most recent legal resources or seek advice from legal professionals to ensure they are informed about any updates or changes in the law.

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Mr. Hutton is a Divorce and Custody Lawyer based out of Round Rock, TX. His background is with child psychology at Arizona State University where he received a B.S. in 2006, and he continued this by working with the Children’s Right’s Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law where he received his J.D. in 2009. Throughout his practice, he has been a strong proponent of utilizing modern technology to improve his practice and the representation of his clients. He currently is the technology chair of CAFA of Travis County and is committed to improving and modernizing the practice of law in Texas. If you have any questions you can contact him at

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